1. What do I need to do to be a pharmacist?
To practice pharmacy in the U.S., you must earn a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree from an accredited pharmacy institution and pass a state pharmacy licensure exam. U.S. pharmacy institutions are accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE). A degree in pharmaceutical science or related discipline will not prepare or permit you to practice pharmacy or care for patients in the U.S. Learn more.
2. How long does it take to earn a Pharm.D. degree?
The Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree program requires at least two years of specific undergraduate college study followed by four academic years (or three calendar years) of professional pharmacy study. Check out the BS Pharmacy Science List to view pre-pharmacy and other feeder programs offered by AACP member institutions. Most students enter a pharmacy degree program after completion of three or more years of college. Learn more.
3. Can I earn a Pharm.D. Degree in less than four years?
A few programs offer an accelerated Pharm.D. degree program to students. The “2-3” program structure includes a minimum of two-years of pre-pharmacy study followed by three-years of accelerated professional study leading to a PharmD degree. The professional curriculum is scheduled year-round, so students may complete the PharmD degree within a shorter timeframe. Learn more.
4. Can I go to pharmacy school right after I graduate from high school?
Some pharmacy schools offer “0-6/7” programs in which students are admitted directly from high school and may advance to the professional phase of the program via an expedited process, if they successfully complete all of the program’s pre-pharmacy and interview requirements. Additionally, some pharmacy schools offer an “early assurance” pathway for undergraduate college students. Learn more.
5. Do I need a bachelor’s degree before I apply to a Pharm.D. degree program?
The Pharm.D. degree requires at least 2 years of undergraduate study followed by 3-4 years in the Pharm.D. curriculum. Some pharmacy schools require or give preference to students with a bachelor’s degree. Visit the Enrollment Options table on the PharmCAS Compare Programs page to learn whether a bachelor’s degree is required by a pharmacy school. The Program Structures page provides a description of the Pharm.D. degree pathways. The BS Pharmacy Science List features pre-pharmacy and other feeder programs offered by AACP member institutions.
6. I already have a degree in healthcare (or related science). Can I finish pharmacy school in less time?
Generally, a degree in a related discipline does not reduce the time it takes to complete the Pharm.D. degree program. Applicants who have earned an undergraduate or graduate degree in a related field must still complete the entire pharmacy degree program (four academic years or three calendar years). Please contact the institution directly to determine if you are eligible for course waivers.
7. I want to be a pharmaceutical scientist or pharmacy researcher. What degree should I earn?
If you’re interested in a career in pharmaceutical research, you generally need a bachelor’s degree in pharmaceutical science, biology, chemistry, medicine, engineering, epidemiology or other related fields. After you earn your bachelor’s degree and/or Pharm.D. degree, you will generally need a master’s degree and/or Ph.D. degree in a pharmacy science field. Learn more.
8. How can I find pharmacy schools in my area?
Visit the PharmCAS School Directory to view pharmacy programs by geographic region and state.
1. What college courses do I need before applying to pharmacy school?
Course prerequisites vary significantly by pharmacy school. Visit the PharmCAS School Directory and the for school-specific requirements. A list of common college course prerequisites is below:
- General Chemistry I & II
- Organic Chemistry I & II
- Biology I & II
- Anatomy and Physiology (or A&P I & II)
- English Composition
- Communication or Public Speaking
- Psychology or Sociology
2. Do I need to major in pre-pharmacy or chemistry before I enter pharmacy school?
This definitely isn’t the case! Only 10 percent of accepted applicants in recent years were chemistry majors. Biology has proven to be the most popular college major among accepted applicants. However, students enter pharmacy school with a mix of majors, including psychology, English, business, biochemistry, and pharmaceutical science. All students, no matter their college majors, are invited to explore and pursue pharmacy school and careers in pharmacy! If the pharmacy prerequisite courses are not required as part of your undergraduate major, you may need to complete these courses as electives. View the Course Prerequisites Summary to learn more.
3. What is the minimum college GPA considered?
GPA requirements vary by pharmacy school. Visit the PharmCAS School Directory to view the minimum overall GPA considered at each PharmCAS school.
4. Will pharmacy schools consider my class rank?
Colleges and schools of pharmacy, in considering applicants for admission, may give attention to the relative position of students within their class-near the top, in the middle or near the bottom. Colleges of pharmacy are interested in enrolling students who have demonstrated exceptional work in school and have the potential to contribute to the profession.
5. How do pharmacy schools calculate repeated courses?
Policies regarding forgiveness of repeated coursework vary by institution. If you did poorly in a required science course prerequisite, you may want to consider retaking the course in order to improve your prerequisite GPA and chances for admission. The pharmacy school may consider the most recent course grade or include both course attempts to calculate your GPAs. See also PharmCAS Verification and GPAs.
6. What kinds of experiences, paid and volunteer, will help me get into pharmacy school?
Pharmacy colleges encourage or require applicants to have volunteer or paid experience working with patients in a pharmacy or health-related setting (hospital, nursing home, etc.). Ongoing work or volunteer experience in a pharmacy setting may be an important factor in the admissions process. Students who have trouble identifying a pharmacist to shadow are encouraged to contact pharmacy colleges and schools in their region for assistance and guidance.
7. Do pharmacy schools require letters of reference for admission?
Many pharmacy degree programs require 1-4 letters of recommendation (also known as “evaluations” or “letters of reference”) as part of the pharmacy admissions process. Schools may require you to submit letters from particular individuals, such as a pharmacist, professor or academic advisor. If letters are required, select individuals who know you well and can speak to your maturity, dependability, dedication, compassion, communication-skills, leadership and any hands-on experience in the field. Visit the PharmCAS School Directory to view the evaluation requirements by institution.
8. Do pharmacy schools require an interview during the admissions process?
Yes, all pharmacy schools require competitive applicants to participate in an interview as part of the admissions process.
9. What should I expect during the pharmacy school interview?
The interview format varies by institution. Pharmacy admission officers may require you to speak with a single faculty member, a student, a pharmacist, a panel of interviewers, or to participate in an orientation program. If invited, you should be prepared to discuss why you have chosen to pursue a career in the pharmacy profession and your perceptions about the role of the pharmacist in healthcare. Those who have researched and gained direct exposure to the profession will be better prepared to respond to the interview questions. During these interviews, you may be rated on your oral communication skills, how you present yourself and interact in a group, your knowledge of the profession of pharmacy, your ability to solve problems, and your motivation to pursue a career in pharmacy. Your written communication skills may be measured with an on-campus essay exercise. Learn more.
10. What happens if I miss my interview?
Applicants who cannot participate in a scheduled interview with a pharmacy school for any reason must cancel at least two business days before the interview date. Any late cancellations or no-shows will be noted as “Unprofessional behavior – Interview No-Show” in the PharmCAS system. Each pharmacy school will independently decide whether to act on this conduct violation. Emergency situations are exempt from this policy. Learn more.
11. Is there a common application for Pharm.D. programs?
Yes, the vast majority of pharmacy schools in the U.S. participate in the Pharmacy College Application Service (PharmCAS) for admission. Please visit the PharmCAS Web site to learn more about the admissions process and requirements.
12. Is there a common application for graduate (M.S./PhD) programs in pharmacy science?
The Pharmacy Graduate Application Service (PharmGrad) is a centralized application service to apply to multiple M.S. and Ph.D. programs offered by colleges and schools of pharmacy.
13. Is there a common application for 0-6/7 and early assurance programs?
The Pharmacy Direct Entry Application Service (PharmDirect) is a centralized application service designed for high school applicants and/or early assurance candidates. PharmDirect offers a simple, efficient process to apply to direct-entry Pharm.D. degree programs (0-6/7 and early assurance) using an online application.
14. Do pharmacy schools give preference to “in-state” applicants?
Some U.S. pharmacy institutions give preference to in-state (resident) students. Out-of-state (non-resident) and foreign applicants may vie for a limited number of positions or may be ineligible for admission, depending on institutional and state policies. Private pharmacy institutions may offer out-of-state and foreign applicants a greater number of positions within the program as compared to state-supported, public institutions. Visit the PharmCAS School Directory to determine whether it is a public or private institution.
15. Are there many returning adult students in pharmacy programs?
A growing number of pharmacy applicants are returning adult students who are interested in changing careers. Your previous work experience may or may not be a factor on the admissions process. Pharmacy schools do not usually offer course waivers for individuals who hold a degree or have work experience in a related healthcare field. Admission offices may require science and math college coursework to be less than 5-10 years old, depending on the institutional policy. If your prerequisite courses were taken more than five years prior, be sure to check with the pharmacy admissions office directly to determine if you must re-take the classes to be eligible for admission. Admission offices do not consider your age in the evaluation of your application.
16. If I have a criminal record, can I go to pharmacy school and become a pharmacist?
Contact the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) to determine if a felony conviction will prevent you from obtaining a license to practice pharmacy in a particular state.
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy
1600 Feehanville Drive
Mount Prospect, IL 60056
Pharmacy schools may ask applicants to disclose any previous felony or misdemeanor convictions as part of the application process. A criminal record will not necessarily prevent you from enrolling in a pharmacy school; however, failure to disclose any past or pending charges may be grounds for dismissal. Many pharmacy schools require criminal background checks and/or drug tests in order to verify and individual’s suitability to participate in experiential education rotations, to confirm a student’s eligibility for pharmacy licensure and to ensure patient safety. Contact your designated pharmacy schools directly for specific policies.
The Pharmacy College Admission Test (PCAT) and PCAT Practice Tests will be retired in 2024. The final PCAT testing cycle will be offered during the 2023–2024 (next) admissions cycle on the following dates:
- July 6, 2023
- October 16–27, 2023
- January 3–9, 2024
Some PharmD Programs may accept, but not require, other standardized tests (i.e., MCAT, GRE). If so, those optional tests can be found under the “PCAT and Other Tests“ page of the PharmCAS School Directory.
1. What tests are non-native English speakers or international students required to take?
International (non-U.S.) applicants, if considered for admission, may be required to send Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL), Test of Spoken English (TSE), or other test scores to demonstrate English language proficiency. Visit the International Applicants section on each page in the PharmCAS School Directory to determine the requirements per school.
2. Can foreign-trained pharmacists practice pharmacy in the United States?
It can be difficult for graduates of international pharmacy degree programs to obtain a pharmacy license in the U.S. because most non-U.S. pharmacy schools only offer the equivalent to a bachelor’s degree. All new pharmacy degree graduates in the U.S. must earn a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree.
Foreign-trained pharmacists must complete one of two options before they can practice pharmacy in the U.S.
- Complete the FPGEC certification process: This pathway is only available to foreign-educated pharmacists who have previously completed the equivalent of a 5-year pharmacy degree program and earned an unrestricted license to practice pharmacy in their home country. Once foreign-educated pharmacists have successfully completed the FPGEC certification process, they are eligible to complete other U.S. state licensure requirements. Visit the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) website to learn more about the FPGEC certification process.
- Graduate from an ACPE–accredited entry-level (traditional) Pharm.D. program: Foreign-educated pharmacists who are ineligible for the FPGEC certification process for any reason and wish to practice in the U.S. must complete the entire entry-level (traditional) Pharm.D. program at an ACPE-accredited institution, including all introductory (IPEE) and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) requirements. Visit the PharmCAS School Directory to view all programs. Each program will determine whether a foreign-trained pharmacist is eligible for advanced standing status. If yes, only a limited number of didactic (classroom-based) courses in the entry-level Pharm.D. program may be waived. Graduates of Pharm.D. programs accredited by ACPE are eligible to take NAPLEX and complete other U.S. state licensure requirements.
Foreign-educated pharmacists who complete either option #1 or #2 may also need to complete additional U.S. immigration requirements before they are eligible work and live in the US.
Questions regarding equivalency exams (FPGEC®) and licensure for graduates of foreign pharmacy programs should be directed to the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP). Many states have additional testing requirements and you should contact the Board of Pharmacy in the state that you will be practicing to learn more. The NABP website provides contact information for each state board.
1. What are the best schools of pharmacy? How are they ranked?
AACP does not rank the institutions that provide pharmacy education in the United States, nor endorse any publication that ranks pharmacy degree programs. Each college and school of pharmacy in the U.S. undergoes an extensive accreditation process as required by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) to ensure that the program meets very high minimum standards of excellence. The educational needs of prospective students vary considerably from person to person. The subjective factors that should go into any ranking system are not adequately addressed by any of the known publications that currently rank schools.
You should carefully choose a pharmacy degree program based upon factors that are important to your own learning needs. You may wish to consider program content, geographic location, faculty, facilities, experiential training opportunities, class size, student demographics, extra-curricular opportunities and cost in your decision to apply to any program at any institution. To help narrow down your list of potential schools, visit the PharmCAS School Directory.
The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) does not accredit U.S. or international pharmacy degree programs. To determine the most recent accreditation status for a particular institution, visit the ACPE website or the PharmCAS School Directory.
1. What do the different accreditation statuses mean?
Visit the ACPE website for definitions of each accreditation status.
2. Can I apply to a new Pharm.D. degree program with no accreditation status to date?
Yes. If you apply to a new Pharm.D. degree program in PharmCAS with no ACPE status to date, you will be required to apply to at least one additional program with accreditation status before you can submit your application.
3. Should I enroll in a new pharmacy school?
Pharmacy institutions are ineligible to become fully accredited programs until they graduate their first professional class. Students who attend a new pharmacy institution may be taking a risk if the institution does not achieve candidate or full accreditation status at that time. Graduates from unaccredited institutions are ineligible to sit for the state pharmacy license examination or practice pharmacy in the U.S. Contact the school directly with questions about its accreditation status.
1. How much does pharmacy school cost?
Tuition and fees vary from each pharmacy program and are influenced by whether the institution is private or public, and you are an in-state or out-of-state resident. For more information on tuition and fees for Pharm.D. Degree Programs, visit the Pharm.D. Tuition Trends Interactive Dashboard . For a list of all pharmacy schools, visit the PharmCAS School Directory.
2. Does AACP offer financial aid?
The American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) does not administer any financial assistance programs directly to students. Federal and state grants and scholarships, although widely available, are generally reserved for the most economically disadvantaged students. Your college advisors are often the best sources of information about loan, grant and scholarship programs. Additionally, pharmacy colleges and schools may offer financial assistance. Learn more.
1. Can I complete my Pharm.D. degree online?
Visit the PharmCAS School Directory to view a current list of Pharm.D. degree programs that offer an online or distance pathway for students. Select the Regions drop-down menu, the Distance Pathway box, and then the Apply Filter button to view these programs.
1. Do I need to complete a residency or can I just go into the workforce right after pharmacy school?
Upon completion of a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) degree and state licensure requirements, you can choose to go directly into pharmacy practice or pursue an optional residency, fellowship, specialization, or degree (i.e., MBA, PhD) to further enhance your skills and expertise.
Residency programs take two years to complete. During the first year (PGY-1), you receive more generalized training and are exposed to a broad range of clinical scenarios. During year two (PGY-2), you will focus on a specific area of interest which helps lead to specialization in that field. To complete a PGY-2 residency, a PGY-1 program must be completed.
The cornerstones of any pharmacy practice residency include direct patient care and practice management. During a residency program, you’re able to develop skills and competence in providing pharmaceutical care to a variety of patients in various hospital settings, thus accelerating growth beyond entry-level experience. Residency training can provide you with a competitive advantage in the job market because trends in health systems increasingly require residency training for clinical positions.
For more information, click here.
1. How easy is it to move between states to practice?
If you earn a pharmacy license in one state, you can apply to transfer your license to a new state through a license reciprocity process. Each state board of pharmacy has different requirements before it will consider or accept a pharmacist license from a different state. While it is quite common to transfer a pharmacy license to a new state, the time, steps, and effort required to successfully complete the process vary by state and based on the work experience of the individual pharmacist.
1. Any advice on how to stand out or perform well during the admissions interview?
Congratulations on your interview! Preparation is definitely key. One way to prepare is by looking at some frequently asked interview questions and thinking about how you’d respond. Check out 9 practice questions on our blog.
In addition, if your interview is virtual, there are some additional considerations. Check out the PharmCAS Virtual Interview Guide.
1. How is diversity, equity, and inclusion being embraced in the pharmacy workplace?
The profession’s commitment to diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) begins with the Oath of a Pharmacist, which embraces the importance of advancing health equity for a diverse population of patients. Pharmacists recognize the importance of DEIA in ensuring that healthcare is accessible and equitable for all patients, regardless of their backgrounds or identities. The pharmacy profession is also becoming increasingly diverse as schools, professional organizations, and employers collaborate to intentionally recruit and support students from diverse backgrounds, including race, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. Additionally, pharmacy education includes training on implicit bias, cultural competency, and the ways in which social determinants of health can impact patient outcomes. By equipping pharmacy professionals with these skills and knowledge, they can better serve patients from a wide range of backgrounds and ensure that healthcare is equitable for all.
1. What do you recommend studying in order to prepare for my first year of pharmacy school?
It can never hurt to brush up on concepts that you struggled with. In addition, it is extremely important to start out on the right foot by being prepared. Professors may send out email communications and post course materials (e.g., lecture handouts) prior to the first class. Contact the pharmacy school directly to determine if they offer a summer academic bootcamp for new Pharm.D. students or could connect you to relevant resources to help you study on your own. Once enrolled, be proactive about your learning. For instance, pharmacy schools use various platforms for class, so it is important to complete any tutorials. Reviewing the class syllabus and course objectives will ensure that you are ready to learn on the first day. Make a list of any questions you have and ask the professors in person or through email. Read more about what to do before you start pharmacy school here.
Are there government / military career opportunities in pharmacy? (Like a pharmacist at a military base, etc.)
The main requirements for becoming a military pharmacist are similar for all military branches. You can get started in the career by following these steps:
- Earn a Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD)
- Obtain your pharmacy license
- Meet the minimum entry requirements for the branch of your choice. You can join the military as an officer, depending on experience and age, or as an enlisted member. The age requirement for U.S. officers is from 17 to 35 years. Although pharmacists don’t need overly athletic bodies, physical ability ensures they can handle military training.
- Complete an officer training course
- Speak to a recruiter for more information and check out